Ozone Impacts of Natural Gas Development in the Haynesville Shale
Environmental Science & Technology
18 Nov 2010
Susan Kemball-Cook, Amnon Bar-Ilan, John Grant, Lynsey Parker, Jaegun Jung, Wilson Santamaria, Jim Mathews, and Greg Yarwood
Using well production data from state regulatory agencies and a review of the available literature, projections of future year Haynesville Shale natural gas production were derived for 2009−2020 for three scenarios corresponding to limited, moderate, and aggressive development. These production estimates were then used to develop an emission inventory for each of the three scenarios. Photochemical modeling of the year 2012 showed increases in 2012 8-h ozone design values of up to 5 ppb within Northeast Texas and Northwest Louisiana resulting from development in the Haynesville Shale. Ozone increases due to Haynesville Shale emissions can affect regions outside Northeast Texas and Northwest Louisiana due to ozone transport. This study evaluates only near-term ozone impacts, but the emission inventory projections indicate that Haynesville emissions may be expected to increase through 2020.
Does the Alberta Tar Sands Industry Pollute? The Scientific Evidence
Open Conservation Biology Journal
17 Sep 2009
Kevin P. Timoney, Peter Lee
This paper determines whether physical and ecological changes that result from tar sands industrial activities are detectable.
Rapid photochemical production of ozone at high concentrations in a rural site during winter
18 January 2009
Russell C. Schnell, Samuel J. Oltmans, Ryan R. Neely, Maggie S. Endres, John V. Molenar & Allen B. White
Ozone, an air pollutant that can cause severe respiratory health effects, is only considered to be produced at levels above health-based standards in urban areas in the summer. However, in the rural Upper Green River Basin of Wyoming near the Jonah-Pinedale Anticline natural gas field hourly average ozone concentrations rose from 10-30 ppb at night to more than 140 ppb soon after solar noon in temperatures as low as – 17º C. In these conditions, a strong, shallow temperature inversion develops in the lowest 100 m of the atmosphere, trapping high concentrations of ozone precursors at night. This study suggests that the exceptionally high photochemical ozone production observed in the UGRB in the winter is the result of NOx and VOC effluents released from natural gas activities in the area. Further, it concludes that while ozone measurements in regions where fossil fuel extraction occurs (in similar terrain and under similar meteorological conditions) are not made in the winter, similar low-temperature ozone formation is likely occurring.
Extensive regional atmospheric hydrocarbon pollution in the southwestern United States
Aaron S. Katzenstein, Lambert A. Doezema, Isobel J. Simpson, Donald R. Blake, and F. Sherwood Rowland
Light alkane hydrocarbons are present in major quantities in the near-surface atmosphere of Texas, Oklahoma, and Kansas during both autumn and spring seasons. In spring 2002, maximum mixing ratios of ethane [34 parts per 109 by volume (ppbv)], propane (20 ppbv), and n-butane (13 ppbv) were observed in north-central Texas. The elevated alkane mixing ratios are attributed to emissions from the oil and natural gas industry. Measured alkyl nitrate mixing ratios were comparable to urban smog values, indicating active photochemistry in the presence of nitrogen oxides, and therefore with abundant formation of tropospheric ozone. We estimate that 4–6 teragrams of methane are released annually within the region and represents a significant fraction of the estimated total U.S. emissions. This result suggests that total U.S. natural gas emissions may have been underestimated. Annual ethane emissions from the study region are estimated to be 0.3–0.5 teragrams.
The potential near-source ozone impacts of upstream oil and gas industry emissions
Journal of Air & Waste Management Association
Eduardo P. Olaguer
This study used the HARC neighborhood air quality model to simulate ozone formation near a hypothetical natural gas processing facility using estimates based on both regular and non-routine (e.g. flaring) emissions. The model predicts that under average conditions using regular emissions associated with compressor engines may increase ambient ozone in the Barnett Shale by more than 3 ppb beginning at about 2 km downwind of the facility. However, additional ozone from a hypothetical natural gas flare (volumes of 100,000 cubic meters per hour over two hours) can also add over 3 ppb to peak 1-hr ozone further downwind (>8km). The additional peak ozone from the flare can briefly exceed 10 ppb ~ 16 km downwind. The findings indicate that major metropolitan areas in or near shale gas development will be unlikely to achieve federal ozone standards in the future unless significant controls are placed on emissions.